Unit 1 Communication

Critical Thinking: Understanding the purpose in writing随堂测验

1、The following verbs are often used to indicate the purpose of a piece of writing. In terms of purpose, academic writing can be categorized into two distinct types: persuasive and informative writing. Decide whether each verb suggests a persuasive or informative purpose. The verb "describe" suggests a ________ purpose.

2、The verb "analyze" suggests a ________ purpose.

3、The verb "compare" suggests a ________ purpose.

4、The verb "evaluate" suggests a ________ purpose.

5、The verb "argue" suggests a ________ purpose.

6、The verb "inform" suggests a ________ purpose.

7、The verb "discuss" suggests a ________ purpose.

8、The verb "explain" suggests a ________ purpose.

Critical Thinking: Understanding the purpose in writing随堂测验

1、The steps of the scientific method are shown below. Rearrange the steps into chronological order. a. Communicate the results b. Test the hypothesis c. Ask a question d. Construct a hypothesis e. Conduct background research f. Draw a conclusion: do the results validate or invalidate the hypothesis? g. Obtain results 按照a-b-c-d-e-f-g的格式填写,字母和连字符之间不空格。

Critical Thinking: Understanding the purpose in writing随堂测验

1、Read the following hypotheses. Some are written in the if... then form, whereas others are written as a null hypothesis (no relationship between two measured phenomena). Decide which form each hypothesis takes. (答案填大写字母) A. If…then B. Null If a person is bilingual, then that person is likely to have a higher income than a monolingual person.

2、If a person spends more than 3 hours a day on a mobile phone, then that person is likely to sleep less than 8 hours each night.

3、The number of emails a person sends is not related to that person’s income.

4、Income is not related to money spent on a mobile phone.

5、The number of languages spoken by a person is not related to a person’s nationality.

Reading: Identifying literature gaps and synthesizing evidence随堂测验

1、Mobile phone sensing is a relatively new topic that requires further academic research. Below are extracts from several academic articles discussing mobile phone sensing. Read the extracts and write down the number of the sentence or sentences that indicate the literature gaps identified by the authors that require further research. (答案写句子编号,若有多个选择,编号间空格) TEXT 1 1.Most examples of community sensing only become useful once they have a large number of people participating; for example, tracking the spread of disease across a city, the migration patterns of birds, congestion patterns across city roads[5], or a noise map of a city[24]. 2.These applications represent large-scale data collection, analysis, and sharing for the good of the community. 3.To achieve scale implicitly requires the cooperation of strangers who will not trust each other. 4.This increases the need for community sensing systems with strong privacy protection and low commitment levels from users. Source: Lane, N. D., Miluzzo, E., Lu, H., Peebles, D., Choudhury, T. & Campbell, A. T. (2010). A survey of mobile phone sensing. IEEE Communications Magazine, 48 (9): 40-150.

2、TEXT 2 1.Even though they possess much more computing, bandwidth, and energy resources than mote-class sensors, mobile devices nevertheless face resource limitations. 2.Resource constraints in traditional sensor networks have been well studied. 3.However, MCS applications introduce new aspects in this regard. 4.First, the set of devices that are collecting sensor data are highly dynamic in availability and capabilities. 5.Due to this highly dynamic nature, modeling and predicting the energy, bandwidth requirements to accomplish a particular task is harder than traditional sensor networks. 6.Second, when there are a large number of available devices with diverse sensing capabilities, identifying and scheduling sensing and communication tasks among them under resource constraints is more complex. Source: Ganti, R. K., Ye, F. & Lei, H. (2011). Mobile crowdsensing: Current state and future challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49 (11): 32-39.

3、TEXT 3 1.An important aspect of MCS [mobile crowdsensing] applications is that they potentially collect sensitive sensor data pertaining to individuals. 2.For example, GPS sensor readings can be utilized to infer private information about the individual, such as the routes they take during their daily commutes, home, and work locations[9]. 3.On the other hand, these GPS sensor measurements (from daily commutes) shared within a larger community can be used to obtain traffic congestion levels in a given city[4]. 4.Thus, it is important to preserve the security and privacy of an individual, but at the same time enable MCS applications. 5.It is also necessary to ensure that an individual’s sensor data is not revealed to untrustworthy third parties. 6.A problem that arises from the opt-in nature of crowdsensing applications is when malicious individuals contribute erroneous sensor data (e.g. falsified GPS readings), maintaining the integrity of sensor data collected is an important problem. Source: Ganti, R. K., Ye, F. & Lei, H. (2011). Mobile crowdsensing: Current state and future challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49 (11): 32-39.

Listening & Speaking: Listening for the main idea and supporting details随堂测验

1、The main idea is often presented at the beginning of a lecture or presentation and restated at the end. Watch Video 1 and identify the main idea and key points of the lecture. Main idea: Americans lack 1. _______ in the 2. _______ Reason 1: lack of 3. _______ and a decline in 4. _______ standards Reason 2: severe 5. _______ pressure Reason 3: an increase in 6. _______ _______

2、_______

3、_______

4、_______

5、_______

6、_______

Listening & Speaking: Listening for the main idea and supporting details随堂测验

1、Watch Video 2 again, and make notes of the key supporting details for each main point. Main points Notes of supporting details 1. Social media contributes to a rise in 1. _________. 2/3 of 2. _________ are more 3. _________ than those 30 years ago; 30% of photos taken by the millennial are 4. _________; 5. _________ million selfies are uploaded to social media every week. 2. Social media narcissism may be a 6. _________. Seeing the reflection reduces the incidence of 7. _________ on tests; Eyes on honesty box → 8. _________ increased three-fold; College students today are also more assertive, 9. _________ and have more 10. _________. ________

2、________

3、________

4、________

5、________

6、________

7、________

8、________

9、________

10、________

Vocabulary & Structure: Using sentence patterns to develop focus in writing随堂测验

1、The central topic is usually established at the beginning of a sentence, preferably as a subject, in an academic context. Write down the topic in the following sentences. Traditional communication way like written paper is replaced by electronic scanner and other information technology system.

2、Electronic scanner and other information technology system replaced traditional communication way like written paper.

3、A depiction of the current situation is useful in furthering the understanding of how an organisation operates.

4、Furthering the understanding of how an organisation operates requires a depiction of the current situation.

5、The perceptions currently held by many employees could potentially prove a barrier to the success of this project.

6、The success of this project could potentially be hindered by the perceptions currently held by many employees.

Vocabulary & Structure: Using sentence patterns to develop focus in writing随堂测验

1、In academic contexts, the new and more important information is usually put at the end of a sentence. Compare the two sentences in each group and analyze which one is better at presenting the new information. (答案填写大写字母) A. Communication consists of transmitting information from one person to another usually via language. B. Transmitting information from one person to another usually via language comprises communication.

2、A. Awareness of health inequalities and their causes by doctors can help to target those in need of such services, improve access and ensure equity in delivery of health services. B. Targeting those in need of such services, improving access and ensuring equity in delivery of health services can benefit from awareness of health inequalities and their causes by doctors.

3、A. The ‘knowledge economy’ reflects the dominance of dynamic ‘knowledge’ sectors such as finance, computers and software, telecommunications, biotechnology and the communications industries. B. The dominance of dynamic ‘knowledge’ sectors such as finance, computers and software, telecommunications, biotechnology and the communications industries are reflected in the ‘knowledge economy’.

Self-assessment

1、Which of the following verbs suggests a persuasive purpose?
    A、Compare.
    B、Evaluate.
    C、Discuss.
    D、All of the above.

2、Which of the following serves as a good thesis statement?
    A、The effect of the Internet on society.
    B、The American automobile industry has many problems.
    C、More people are attending community colleges.
    D、Recycling programs, though expensive at first, are ultimately an efficient, cost effective, and environmentally sound means of reducing waste in our environment.

3、The rise of multinational corporations (跨国公司), global marketing, new communications technologies, and shrinking cultural differences have led to an unparalleled increase in global public relations or PR. Surprisingly, since modern PR was largely an American invention, the U.S. leadership in public relations is being threatened by PR efforts in other countries. Ten years ago, for example, the world’s top five public relations agencies were American-owned. In 1991, only one was. The British in particular are becoming more sophisticated and creative. A recent survey found that more than half of all British companies include PR as part of their corporate (公司的) planning activities, compared to about one-third of U.S. companies. It may not be long before London replaces New York as the capital of PR. Why is America lagging behind in the global PR race? First, Americans as a whole tend to be fairly provincial and take more of an interest in local affairs. Knowledge of world geography, for example, has never been strong in this country. Secondly, Americans lag behind their European and Asian counterparts (相对应的人) in knowing a second language. Less than 5 percent of Burson—Marshall’s U.S. employees know two languages. Ogilvy and Mather has about the same percentage. Conversely, some European firms have half or more of their employees fluent in a second language. Finally, people involved in PR abroad tend to keep a closer eye on international affairs. In the financial PR area, for instance, most Americans read the Wall Street Journal. Overseas, their counterparts read the Journal as well as the Financial Times of London and The Economist, publications not often read in this country. Perhaps the PR industry might take a lesson from Ted Turner of CNN (Cable News Network). Turner recently announced that the word “foreign” would no longer be used on CNN news broadcasts. According to Turner, global communications have made the nations of the world so interdependent that there is no longer any such things as foreign. According to the passage, U.S. leadership in public relations is being threatened because of ________.
    A、an unparalleled increase in the number of public relations companies
    B、shrinking cultural differences and new communications technologies
    C、the decreasing number of multinational corporations in the U.S.
    D、increased efforts of other countries in public relations

4、London could soon replace New York as the center of PR because ________.
    A、British companies are more ambitious than U.S. companies
    B、British companies place more importance on PR than U.S. companies
    C、British companies are heavily involved in planning activities
    D、four of the world’s top public relations agencies are British-owned

5、The word “provincial” (Line 1, Para. 3) most probably means “________”.
    A、limited in outlook
    B、like people from the provinces
    C、rigid in thinking
    D、interested in world financial affairs

6、We learn from the third paragraph that employees in the American PR industry ________.
    A、speak at least one foreign language fluently
    B、are ignorant about world geography
    C、are not as sophisticated as their European counterparts
    D、enjoy reading a great variety of English business publications

7、What lesson might the PR industry take from Ted Turner of CNN?
    A、American PR companies should be more internationally-minded.
    B、The American PR industry should develop global communications technologies.
    C、People working in PR should be more fluent in foreign languages.
    D、People involved in PR should avoid using the word “foreign”.

8、New technology links the world as never before. Our planet has shrunk. It’s now a “global village” where countries are only seconds away by fax or phone or satellite link. And, of course, our ability to benefit from this high-tech communications equipment is greatly enhanced by foreign language skills. Deeply involved with this new technology is a breed of modern businesspeople who have a growing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad. In modern markets, success overseas often helps support domestic business efforts. Overseas assignments are becoming increasingly important to advancement within executive ranks. The executive stationed in another country no longer need fear being “out of sight and out of mind.” He or she can be sure that the overseas effort is central to the company’s plan for success, and that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad. If an employee can succeed in a difficult assignment overseas, superiors will have greater confidence in his or her ability to cope back in the United States where cross-cultural considerations and foreign language issues are becoming more and more prevalent (普遍的). Thanks to a variety of relatively inexpensive communications devices with business applications, even small businesses in the United States are able to get into international markets. English is still the international language of business. But there is an ever-growing need for people who can speak another language. A second language isn’t generally required to get a job in business, but having language skills gives a candidate the edge when other qualifications appear to be equal. The employee posted abroad who speaks the country’s principal language has an opportunity to fast-forward certain negotiations, and can have the cultural insight to know when it is better to move more slowly. The employee at the home office who can communicate well with foreign clients over the telephone or by fax machine is an obvious asset to the firm. What is the author’s attitude toward high-tech communications equipment?
    A、Critical.
    B、Prejudiced.
    C、Indifferent.
    D、Positive.

9、With the increased use of high-tech communications equipment, businesspeople ________.
    A、have to get familiar with modern technology
    B、are gaining more economic benefits from domestic operations
    C、are attaching more importance to their overseas business
    D、are eager to work overseas

10、In this passage, “out of sight and out of mind” (Lines 2-3, Para. 3) probably means ________.
    A、being unable to think properly for lack of insight
    B、being totally out of touch with business at home
    C、missing opportunities for promotion when abroad
    D、leaving all care and worry behind

11、According to the passage, what is an important consideration of international corporations in employing people today?
    A、Connections with businesses overseas.
    B、Ability to speak the client’s language.
    C、Technical know-how.
    D、Business experience.

12、The advantage of employees having foreign language skills is that they can ________.
    A、better control the whole negotiation process
    B、easily find new approaches to meet market needs
    C、fast-forward their proposals to headquarters
    D、easily make friends with businesspeople abroad

13、Most pieces of writing have a thesis, even if it isn't explicitly stated.

14、A scientific hypothesis is stated at the beginning of a scientific paper and should be answered by the conclusion.

15、In English sentences the new information is usually introduced at the _______ (beginning/end) of sentences.

16、Fill the blank with one of the words given below.Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize The new law makes no ___________ between adults and children.

17、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize It's not a ___________ that none of the directors are women.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize In many societies women are ___________ to men.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize Modern music is often considered ___________ to that of the past.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize Membership of the club is by ___________ only.

21、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize Two factories were closed in an ___________ to cut costs.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize We first build up a detailed ___________ of our customers and their requirements.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize They did a lot to ___________ efficiency.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize Participants were ___________ according to age.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. coincidence profile subordinate attempt nomination distinction categorize manipulate inferior maximize As a politician, he knows how to ___________ public opinion.

Writing an introductory paragraph

1、Choose one of the topics on page 19 in your textbook and develop it into a strong thesis by following the process recommended in the textbook, and then write an introductory paragraph for that thesis. You should write no less than 80 words.

Unit 2 Information

Critical Thinking: Detecting mechanisms showing causal relations and presenting detailed information as supporting details随堂测验

1、A complete causal relation consists of three parts: cause, signal word and effect. Analyze the following cause and effect statement and answer the question. 1. Which part in the following statement is the signal word? A) El Niño events can B) cause far-reaching C) global disruption in the general circulation of the Pacific Ocean and atmosphere.

2、2. Which part in the following statement is the effect? A) Lack of natural resources is B) one of the results of large C) ecological footprints.

3、3. Which part in the following statement is the signal word? The A) torrential flood has B) devastated many C) villages.

4、4. Which part in the following statement is the cause? A) Ray Tomlinson, widely credited as the B) creator of C) email, has died, his employer, Raytheon, told CNN on Sunday.

5、5. Which part in the following statement is the signal word? Still, A) Apple’s profits B) obscured the C) fact that its share of the market was falling, despite the technological superiority of its products.

Critical Thinking: Detecting mechanisms showing causal relations and presenting detailed information as supporting details随堂测验

1、An argumentative paragraph can be compared to a hamburger. The top bun and the bottom bun represent the introduction and conclusion of a writing piece; the reasons given in support of the thesis statements are like the meat and vegetables, offering the major substance of the hamburger, while elaborations are the condiments—the pickles, cheese, ketchup etc. added to its overall taste. Look at the following chart and answer the following question: 1.Where would you put the detailed supporting details to explain the reasons given?
    A、A
    B、B
    C、C
    D、D

2、2.Where would you put the findings or facts aobut the effect you are explaining reasons for?
    A、A
    B、B
    C、C
    D、D

Reading: Identifying causal relations of different kinds随堂测验

1、The strength of causal connections between two phenomena differs with the modals (e.g. may) or adverbs (possibly) they co-occur. Here are some sentences from the passage. Compare the following words in bold italicized type and decide which one has the greatest causal strength (in other words, the most likely to happen)? 1. When these activities cause problems, they A) can result in significant financial loss and B) possibly even have macro-economic effects in fragile situations. 2. Software engineering is a difficult task and errors C) may occur due to any number of causes. 3. Computer software and hardware is responsible for making decisions which D) affect people’s lives.
    A、A
    B、B
    C、C
    D、D

Reading: Identifying causal relations of different kinds随堂测验

1、Read Text 3 on Page 40 and construct the causal structure of this paragraph in block forms. The main principle is: the cause leads to effects via implication arrows ® (read as ‘lead to’). The general structure is shown as below. a: ____________________________________________________________

2、b: ____________________________________________________________

3、c: ____________________________________________________________

4、d: ____________________________________________________________

5、e: ____________________________________________________________

Listening & Speaking: Thinking about WHAT and WHY and presenting cause and effect with supporting information随堂测验

1、Here is a talk about the new technology IoT (the Internet of Things). The speaker Benson Hougland starts his talk by explaining What is the Internet of Things. Watch Video 1. Fill in the rough notes on the Internet of Things below. ①. _______________

2、②. _______________

3、③.__________________

4、④.__________________

5、Watch Video 2 and note down WHO will care about this new technology and WHY they care. Remember, the causal relation may not always be led by a signal word. ①.___________________________

6、②.____________________________________

7、③.___________________________

8、④._________________________

Listening & Speaking: Thinking about WHAT and WHY and presenting cause and effect with supporting information随堂测验

1、②._____________________________

2、③._____________________________

3、Watch Video 1 again. This time, note down the three real life examples for the IoT devices. In pairs, discuss how these three examples help the audience understand the Internet of Things. ①._____________________________

4、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 1) .___________________

5、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 2) .___________________

6、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 3) .___________________

7、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 4) .___________________

8、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 5) .___________________

9、Watch Video 3 to find out details of the project ‘Green Horizon’. Fill in the following blanks. 6) .___________________

Writing: Producing explicit and implicit cause-effect sentences and paragraphs随堂测验

1、The causal relation encoded in the paragraph in Task 2.2 (Page. 51) is not a cause and effect in the conventional sense, but more of a logical deduction. Read the paragraph. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. Sentence 1 is the topic sentence.

2、The causal relation encoded in the paragraph in Task 2.2 (Page. 51) is not a cause and effect in the conventional sense, but more of a logical deduction. Read the paragraph. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 2. Topic sentence is about WHY this is the case.

3、The causal relation encoded in the paragraph in Task 2.2 (Page. 51) is not a cause and effect in the conventional sense, but more of a logical deduction. Read the paragraph. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 3. This paragraph starts with cause, followed by the elaboration of effects.

Self-assessment

1、Which of the following is NOT a criterion for identifying cause and effect?
    A、Temporal precedence
    B、Co-variation of cause and effect
    C、Relevance of events
    D、No plausible alternative explanations

2、Which part in the following sentence is the cause-effect signal word, “The torrential flood devastated many villages just in one day.”?
    A、the torrential flood
    B、devastated
    C、many villages
    D、just in one day

3、Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. The rise of the Internet has been one of the most transformative developments in human history, comparable in impact to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph. Over two billion people worldwide now have access to vastly more information than ever before, and can communicate with each other instantly, often using Web-connected mobile devices they carry everywhere. But the Internet’s tremendous impact has only just begun. “Mass adoption of the Internet is driving one of the most exciting social, cultural, and political transformations in history, and unlike earlier periods of change, this time the effects are fully global,” Schmidt and Cohen write in their new book, The New Digital Age. Perhaps the most profound changes will come when the five billion people worldwide who currently lack Internet access get online. The authors do an excellent job of examining the implications of the Internet revolution for individuals, governments, and institutions like the news media. But if the book has one major shortcoming, it’s that the authors don’t spend enough time applying a critical eye to the role of Internet businesses in these sweeping changes. In their book, the authors provide the most authoritative volume to date that describes—and more importantly predicts—how the Internet will shape our lives in the coming decades. They paint a picture of a world in which individuals, companies, institutions, and governments must deal with two realities, one physical, and one virtual. At the core of the book is the idea that “technology is neutral, but people aren’t.” By using this concept as a starting point, the authors aim to move beyond the now familiar optimist vs. pessimist dichotomy (对立观点) that has characterized many recent debates about whether the rise of the Internet will ultimately be good or bad for society. In an interview with TIME earlier this week, Cohen said although he and his co-author are optimistic about many aspects of the Internet, they’re also realistic about the risks and dangers that lie ahead when the next five billion people come online, particularly with respect to personal privacy and state surveillance (监视). In what way is the rise of the Internet similar to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph?
    A、It transforms human history.
    B、It facilitates daily communication.
    C、It is adopted by all humanity
    D、It revolutionizes people's thinking

4、How do Schmidt and Cohen describe the effects of the Internet?
    A、They are immeasurable.
    B、They are unpredictable.
    C、They are worldwide.
    D、They are contaminating.

5、In what respect is the book The New Digital Age considered inadequate?
    A、It lacks an objective evaluation of the role of Internet businesses.
    B、It fails to recognize the impact of the Internet technology.
    C、It fails to look into the social implications of the Internet.
    D、It does not address the technical aspects of Internet communication.

6、What will the future be like when everybody gets online?
    A、People will have equal access to information.
    B、People don’t have to travel to see the world.
    C、People will be living in two different realities.
    D、People don’t have to communicate face to face.

7、What does the passage say about the authors of The New Digital Age?
    A、They leave many questions unanswered concerning the Internet.
    B、They are optimistic about the future of the Internet revolution.
    C、They have explored the unknown territories of the virtual world.
    D、They don’t take sides in analyzing the effects of the Internet.

8、Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Could you reproduce Silicon Valley elsewhere, or is there something unique about it? It wouldn't be surprising if it were hard to reproduce in other countries, because you couldn't reproduce it in most of the US either. What does it take to make a Silicon Valley? It's the right people. If you could get the right ten thousand people to move from Silicon Valley to Buffalo, Buffalo would become Silicon Valley. You only need two kinds of people to create a technology hub (中心): rich people and nerds (痴迷科研的人). Observation bears this out. Within the US, towns have become startup hubs if and only if they have both rich people and nerds. Few startups happen in Miami, for example, because although it's full of rich people, it has few nerds. It's not the kind of place nerds like. Whereas Pittsburgh has the opposite problem: plenty of nerds, but no rich people. The top US Computer Science departments are said to be MIT, Stanford, Berkeley, and Carnegie-Mellon. MIT yielded Route 128. Stanford and Berkeley yielded Silicon Valley. But what did Carnegie-Mellon yield in Pittsburgh? And what happened in Ithaca, home of Cornell University, which is also high on the list? I grew up in Pittsburgh and went to college at Cornell, so I can answer for both. The weather is terrible, particularly in winter, and there's no interesting old city to make up for it, as there is in Boston. Rich people don't want to live in Pittsburgh or Ithaca. So while there're plenty of hackers (电脑迷) who could start startups, there's no one to invest in them. Do you really need the rich people? Wouldn't it work to have the government invest in the nerds? No, it would not. Startup investors are a distinct type of rich people. They tend to have a lot of experience themselves in the technology business. This helps them pick the right startups, and means they can supply advice and connections as well as money. And the fact that they have a personal stake in the outcome makes them really pay attention. What do we learn about Silicon Valley from the passage?
    A、It leads the world in information technology.
    B、It is the biggest technology hub in the US.
    C、Its fame in high technology is incomparable.
    D、Its success is hard to copy anywhere else.

9、What makes Miami unfit to produce a Silicon Valley?
    A、Lack of incentive for investment.
    B、Lack of the right kind of talents.
    C、Lack of government support.
    D、Lack of famous universities.

10、In what way is Carnegie-Mellon different from Stanford, Berkeley and MIT?
    A、It does not produce computer hackers and nerds.
    B、Its science departments are not nearly as good.
    C、Its location is not as attractive to rich people.
    D、It does not pay much attention to business startups.

11、What does the author imply about Boston?
    A、It is not likely to attract lots of investors and nerds.
    B、It is an old city with many sites of historical interest.
    C、It has pleasant weather all year round.
    D、It produces wealth as well as high-tech.

12、What does the author say about startup investors?
    A、They are especially wise in making investments.
    B、They can do more than providing money.
    C、They have good connections in the government.
    D、They are rich enough to invest in nerds.

13、In a cause-effect essay, the body paragraphs usually elaborate the several reasons why the thesis is true.

14、The two main ways a cause and effect essay can be organized are block structure and point-by-point structure.

15、The two types of causal relations are explicit and direct causal relations.

16、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Adults are often __________ to German measles(风疹).

17、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority We laughed and that helped ease the__________.

18、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Humans cannot ___________ plants such as grass.

19、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority The damage was far more serious than __________ believed.

20、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Her sense of __________ makes her very unpopular.

21、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Official policy has changed, for reasons that remain__________.

22、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Hundreds of people were____________ homeless by the earthquake.

23、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority They were shocked by the _____________of his lies.

24、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority Many people suffer from an __________ of stress in job and life.

25、Fill the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. render obscure excess initially immune tension transmit digest transparency superiority The ceremony was __________ live by satellite to over fifty countries.

Writing a cause and effect paragraph

1、Write a paragraph about the Internet of Things as the next big thing in daily life. Your paragraph should start with the topic sentence ‘The Internet of Things is the next big thing in our daily life.’ Then offer at least three supporting details, each of which should be further elaborated and expanded. Write for no less than 180 words.

Unit 3 Economy

Critical Thinking: A brief introduction to analysis随堂测验

1、Analysis usually implies at least two elements: a breakdown of something into parts, and a discussion or description of those parts using a point of view or a framework. Read each of the following prompts and determine whether it involves analysis. If yes, click "true"; if no, click "false". Read large volumes of data, then find out trends and produce a result.

2、Give examples of problem solving at work.

3、Search for information about inflation.

4、Work out a written report on the effectiveness of a particular event such as a political campaign.

5、Discover a more efficient and productive way to complete a particular job task.

6、Describe a graph showing changes in consumer price index.

7、Create a set of steps to implement a process that could have an effective outcome.

8、Identify a problem and then create a repair to make it avoid becoming a major problem.

Critical Thinking: A brief introduction to analysis随堂测验

1、Descriptive writing provides introductory and background information, and outlines the way things are. Analytical wiring explores relationships of ideas or parts of something, provides possible situations and alternative responses, and compares and contrasts. Read each of the following questions and determine whether it calls for descriptive writing or analytical writing. Questions to answer Descriptive Analytical 1 What is this about? 2 How did this occur? 3 What is the context/situation? 4 Who is affected? 5 Why is this argument/theory/suggestion/solution provided? 6 How does it work in theory? In practice/context? 7 How does one factor affect another? 8 What is the main point? 9 What if another factor were added or removed? Questions that call for descriptive writing: _____________________(答案书写格式范例:1-2-3-4)

2、Questions to answer Descriptive Analytical 1 What is this about? 2 How did this occur? 3 What is the context/situation? 4 Who is affected? 5 Why is this argument/theory/suggestion/solution provided? 6 How does it work in theory? In practice/context? 7 How does one factor affect another? 8 What is the main point? 9 What if another factor were added or removed? Questions that call for analytical writing: _____________________(答案书写格式范例:1-2-3-4)

Critical Thinking: A brief introduction to analysis随堂测验

1、Three types of analysis are frequently used in academic writing: causal analysis, process analysis and rhetorical analysis. Read the following descriptions of the three types and fill in the blank with A, B or C. A. Causal analysis B. Process analysis C. Rhetorical analysis It explains how something happens or how something works, which may include instructions for performing a task. It focuses on helping the readers to understand the steps, such as how an idea for a legal reform becomes a bill, and from there, a law, and further, how the law may be challenged in the court.

2、A. Causal analysis B. Process analysis C. Rhetorical analysis It evaluates elements of a text and determines how those elements impact the success or failure of that argument. It often addresses written arguments, but visual, oral, or other kinds of ‘texts’ can also be analyzed.

3、A. Causal analysis B. Process analysis C. Rhetorical analysis It starts with a situation or problem and explains either what caused the situation, or what the effects of the situation are. Such an analysis may show why a process broke down, or what the effects of the breakdown were.

Reading: Engaging with analytical texts随堂测验

1、A thesis statement presents the focus of an analytical text, illustrating the general purpose of the analysis. Read the following thesis statements and determine whether they are strong or weak. Thesis Statements Strong Weak 1 Computer addiction has many causes and effects. 2 Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support. 3 There are some negative and positive aspects to the Chinese Herbal Medicine. 4 Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support. 5 Doing exercises will benefit you in many aspects. 6 This paper will address the characteristics of a good corporate manager. 7 There are many similarities and differences between the housing market in China and that in Japan. 8 The tax policies of the current administration threaten to reduce the tax burden on the middle class. Strong thesis statements:_________________ (填写格式:1-2-3-4)

2、Weak thesis statements: __________________(填写格式:1-2-3-4)

Reading: Engaging with analytical texts随堂测验

1、Read the following analytical paragraphs, and decide which method is used to develop each paragraph. Fill in the black with A, B, C, D or E. A. classification B. compare and contrast C. process analysis D. cause and effect E. problem and solution 1. Eating in is often regarded as a good method of saving time, energy and money, but this may not necessarily be so. The cost of eating in, in terms of groceries needed for nutritious yet appealing meals, is on the rise; whereas, the cost of an economical, yet balanced meal out-on-the-town has risen very little over the past few years.

2、A. classification B. compare and contrast C. process analysis D. cause and effect E. problem and solution 2. There are as many kinds of restaurants as there are occasions to eat out, but the three most popular dining spots are the local "hamburger haven", the "diet-conscious greenery", and the "Let's eat ethnic for a change".

3、A. classification B. compare and contrast C. process analysis D. cause and effect E. problem and solution 3. To pick the best restaurant for that romantic night out, a number of questions must be considered. First the type of people your wife and yourself are is an essential factor. Are you casual, fun-loving persons who love to play, or do you crave private, romantic interludes, pearls and tuxedoes? Secondly, the choice of a restaurant depends on...

4、A. classification B. compare and contrast C. process analysis D. cause and effect E. problem and solution 4. In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities.

5、A. classification B. compare and contrast C. process analysis D. cause and effect E. problem and solution 5. The Loggerhead sea turtle is threatened. Conservationists are attempting to help the survival rate of the Loggerhead turtles. Their solution is to educate the public about the nesting habits of the sea turtles and help pass gill netting regulations for fishermen.

Reading: Engaging with analytical texts随堂测验

1、Analysis is a way of understanding a subject by using these elements: expressing an opinion (making assertions), supporting and justifying that opinion (explaining and providing examples), and showing why the opinion matters (extending the significance). Read Text 3 and identify the three main components of an analysis. Complete the table with paragraph number ❶-❸. 将正确答案填写在指定位置。(参考格式:1-2-3) Components of an analysis Paragraph number 1 Assertion 2 Example and explanation 3 Significance

Listening & Speaking: Recognizing the structure of an oral presentation随堂测验

1、Millennials Baby boomers Who are they? Born between 1__________ Population in the US: 2__________ Population in the US: 3_________ Why do we study them? ² They are approaching their peak spending years. ² Over the next five years, their spending is expected to increase by 4_________. ² 6________have mobile phones, ² 7________have social media profiles, ² The oldest among them have internet access since 8_______ ² Family members look to millennials for 9_______. What new 10_________ should I be engaged in? Baby-boomer’s spending is expected to decline by 5________. ______________

2、______________

3、______________

4、_______________

5、_______________

6、_______________

7、_______________

8、_______________

9、_______________

10、_______________

Listening & Speaking: Recognizing the structure of an oral presentation随堂测验

1、Consumer behavior 1 Consumer behavior 2 Consumer behavior 3 Millennials as consumers 1 _______as likely to talk about brand or product over social media, 2________as likely to blog about it. 4________as an important tool to make a purchase decision. 5________as likely to to reference peer review on products before buying them. A generation of researchers. More than 6________ more likely to make price comparison. Companies In the past: Taking a 7______ approach Today: Taking a 8______ approach 3 companies connect with consumers on ________ / Not charge premium __________

2、___________

3、__________

4、__________

5、__________

6、__________

7、__________

8、__________

Listening & Speaking: Recognizing the structure of an oral presentation随堂测验

1、Watch Video 2, and pay attention to how the speaker starts the presentation. Choose the two strategies used at the beginning of the video.
    A、Using a powerful quote
    B、Starting with an imagined scenario
    C、Asking a rhetorical question
    D、Stating shocking statistics

Listening & Speaking: Recognizing the structure of an oral presentation随堂测验

1、Watch Video 2 again, and identify the speaker’s assertion, evidence and significance. Determine which three sentences from the following table are used as evidence 1. Five stages of consumer decision making process 2. 64% of women and 40% of men in the in the U.S. shop because it improved their moods. 3. “We have about 23 minutes of shopping before our logic is exhausted and we start making decisions emotionally.” 4. “Emotions can be two to three times as influential to a purchase, even a big one!” 5. “Sometimes you don't actually have to buy anything to get that feel-good boost, or what they call ‘hedonic elevation’”. Assertion: We make purchase decisions based on feelings and experiences rather than facts. Evidence: _____________ (填写格式1-2-3) Significance: If we understand the psychology behind shopping, we can make rational decisions.

Writing: Planning an analysis随堂测验

1、There are steps to follow when you write an analytical text. Fill in the blanks with a-d to complete the steps. (填写格式:a-b-c-d) a. Find supporting evidence b. Create an outline c. Create a strong thesis d. Write the first draft _________________________

Vocabulary & Structure: functions of modal verbs and modal adverbs随堂测验

1、One purpose of using modality in writing is to express degrees of confidence or certainty that events may happen, or that advice should be taken. Complete the table with the following modal verbs and modal adverbs according to their level of certainty. will shall might may should must occasionally certainly definitely possibly undoubtedly Degree of certainty Modal verbs Modal adverbs High Moderate should, would, can, ought probably, generally, usually Low Modal verbs with high degree of certainty:__________________ (多个答案用分号隔开,英文标点后空格)

2、will shall might may should must occasionally certainly definitely possibly undoubtedly Modal verbs with low degree of certainty:__________________ (多个答案用分号隔开,英文标点后空格)

3、will shall might may should must occasionally certainly definitely possibly undoubtedly Modal adverbs with high degree of certainty:__________________(多个答案用分号隔开;英文标点后空格)

4、will shall might may should must occasionally certainly definitely possibly undoubtedly Modal adverbs with low degree of certainty:__________________(多个答案用分号隔开;英文标点后空格)

Vocabulary & Structure: functions of modal verbs and modal adverbs随堂测验

1、Read the examples of assertions in the table, judge their strength and write down a number between 1 and 3 in the boxes to indicate how strong the assertion is (1= the weakest; 2 = the middle; 3 = the strongest). Assertions Strength of assertion 1 This may be the case where there has been a separation order, a decree nisi for divorce, a non-molestation order, or a separation agreement between the parties. 2 This might be the case with provocation, for example, there might be objections to some of the distinctions now drawn by the law. 3 It may well be the case that there is variation within one of these categories. _________________________(按如下格式书写答案:1-2-3)

Self-assessment

1、When families gather for Christmas dinner, some will stick to formal traditions dating back to Grandma’s generation. Their tables will be set with the good dishes and silver, and the dress code will be Sunday-best. But in many other homes, this china-and-silver elegance has given way to a stoneware (粗陶)-and-stainless informality, with dresses assuming an equally casual-Friday look. For hosts and guests, the change means greater simplicity and comfort. For makers of fine china in Britain, it spells economic hard times. Last week Royal Doulton, the largest employer in Stoke-on-Trent, announced that it is eliminating 1,000 jobs—one-fifth of its total workforce. That brings to more than 4,000 the number of positions lost in 18 months in the pottery (陶瓷) region. Wedgwood and other pottery factories made cuts earlier. Although a strong pound and weak markets in Asia play a role in the downsizing, the layoffs in Stoke have their roots in earthshaking social shifts. A spokesman for Royal Doulton admitted that the company “has been somewhat slow in catching up with the trend” toward casual dining. Families eat together less often, he explained, and more people eat alone, either because they are single or they eat in front of television; Even dinner parties, if they happen at all, have gone casual. In a time of long work hours and demanding family schedules, busy hosts insist, rightly, that it’s better to share a takeout pizza on paper plates in the family room than to wait for the perfect moment or a “real” dinner party. Too often, the perfect moment never comes. Iron a fine-patterned tablecloth? Forget it. Polish the silver? Who has time? Yet the loss of formality has its down side. The fine points of etiquette (礼节) that children might once have learned at the table by observation or instruction from parents and grandparents (“Chew with your mouth closed.” “Keep your elbows off the table.”) must be picked up elsewhere. Some companies now offer etiquette seminars for employees who may be competent professionally but clueless socially. 31. The trend toward casual dining has resulted in ________.
    A、bankruptcy of fine china manufacturers
    B、shrinking of the pottery industry
    C、restructuring of large enterprises
    D、economic recession in Great Britain

2、Which of the following may be the best reason for casual dining?
    A、Busy schedules leave people no time for formality.
    B、People want to practice economy in times of scarcity.
    C、Family members need more time to relax.
    D、Young people won’t follow the etiquette of the older generation.

3、It can be learned from the passage that Royal Doulton is ________.
    A、a retailer of stainless steel tableware
    B、a dealer in stoneware
    C、a pottery chain store
    D、a producer of fine china

4、The main cause of the layoffs in the pottery industry is ________.
    A、the increased value of the pound
    B、the economic recession in Asia
    C、the change in people’s way of life
    D、the fierce competition at home and abroad

5、Refined table manners, though less popular than before in current social life ________.
    A、are still a must on certain occasions
    B、are bound to return sooner or later
    C、are still being taught by parents at home
    D、can help improve personal relationships

6、Consumers are being confused and misled by the hodge-podge (大杂烩) of environmental claims made by household products, according to a “green labeling” study published by Consumers International Friday. Among the report’s more outrageous (令人无法容忍的) findings-a German fertilizer described itself as “earthworm friendly” a brand of flour said it was “non-polluting” and a British toilet paper claimed to be “environmentally friendlier” The study was written and researched by Britain’s National Consumer Council (NCC) for lobby group Consumer International. It was funded by the German and Dutch governments and the European Commission. “ While many good and useful claims are being made, it is clear there is a long way to go in ensuring shoppers are adequately informed about the environmental impact of products they buy,” said Consumers International director Anna Fielder. The 10-country study surveyed product packaging in Britain, Western Europe, Scandinavia and the United States. It found that products sold in Germany and the United Kingdom made the most environmental claims on average. The report focused on claims made by specific products, such as detergent (洗涤剂) insect sprays and by some garden products. It did not test the claims, but compared them to labeling guidelines set by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in September, 1999. Researchers documented claims of environmental friendliness made by about 2,000 products and found many too vague or too misleading to meet ISO standards. “Many products had specially-designed labels to make them seem environmentally friendly, but in fact many of these symbols mean nothing,” said report researcher Philip Page. “Laundry detergents made the most number of claims with 158. Household cleaners were second with 145 separate claims, while paints were third on our list with 73. The high numbers show how very confusing it must be for consumers to sort the true from the misleading.” he said. The ISO labeling standards ban vague or misleading claims on product packaging, because terms such as “environmentally friendly” and “non-polluting” cannot be verified. “What we are now pushing for is to have multinational corporations meet the standards set by the ISO.” said Page. 31. According to the passage, the NCC found it outrageous that ________.
    A、all the products surveyed claim to meet ISO standards
    B、the claims made by products are often unclear or deceiving
    C、consumers would believe many of the manufactures’ claim
    D、few products actually prove to be environment friendly

7、As indicated in this passage, with so many good claims, the consumers ________.
    A、are becoming more cautious about the products they are going to buy
    B、are still not willing to pay more for products with green labeling
    C、are becoming more aware of the effects different products have on the environment
    D、still do not know the exact impact of different products on the environment

8、A study was carried out by Britain’s NCC to ________.
    A、find out how many claims made by products fail to meet environmental standards
    B、inform the consumers of the environmental impact of the products they buy
    C、examine claims made by products against ISO standards
    D、revise the guidelines set by the International Standards Organization

9、What is one of the consequences caused by the many claims of household products?
    A、They are likely to lead to serious environmental problems.
    B、Consumers find it difficult to tell the true from the false.
    C、They could arouse widespread anger among consumer.
    D、Consumers will be tempted to buy products they don’t need.

10、It can be inferred from the passage that the lobby group Consumer International wants to ________.
    A、make product labeling satisfy ISO requirements
    B、see all household products meet environmental standards
    C、warn consumers of the danger of so-called green products
    D、verify the efforts of non-polluting products

11、What are the components of an effective analysis?
    A、Assertions
    B、Evidence and explanations
    C、Significance or interpretation
    D、Modal verbs

12、Which of the following methods are effective to open a speech or presentation?
    A、Using a powerful quote
    B、Asking a rhetorical or literal question
    C、Asking the audience to imagine a scenario
    D、Stating a shocking statistic

13、Analytical writing doesn’t involve any descriptive writing.

14、In academic writing, strong modals should always be used to show credibility.

15、In this unit, we have learned three types of analysis: process analysis, rhetorical analysis and _____________ analysis.

16、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross You will be ________ to your pension when you reach 65.

17、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross Investments showed a _______ profit of 26%.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross This will ________ the impact of our activities and our resources.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross Many ________ influences can affect your state of mind.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross __________ from lung cancer is still increasing.

21、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross The road and the canal run ________ to each other.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross Awards provide an __________ for young people to improve their skills.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross A degree is an essential ___________ for employment at this level.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross He was a ________ alcoholic and unable to hold down a job.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incentive prerequisite entitle parallel external amplify chronic confront mortal gross The issue has caused great tension between the two countries and could lead to a military_________.

Writing an analytical paragraph

1、Develop an analytical paragraph on the topic of "optional course selection" and discuss primary concerns or factors that influence students' decision. Follow the structure of AXES (Assertion, EXample, Explanation, Significance).

Unit 4 Energy

Critical thinking: Discussion: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、Decide which of the following statements or questions are good topics to discuss.
    A、What are the most efficient energy-saving measures of air-conditioning systems in public places?
    B、Nuclear fission reactors should be deployed and used to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes.
    C、Solar power provides an alternative to conventional energy resources.
    D、America’s anti-pollution efforts should focus on privately owned hybrid cars.

2、Judge whether the following statements about discussion are true or false. 1. Discussion is a process of interactive communication of reasons concerning a debatable issue.

3、2. A discussion essay is a written debate on a debatable topic.

4、3. To discuss opinions on others’ work, you need to evaluate arguments, weigh evidence, develop a set of standards, and then draw your own conclusion.

5、4. It is always necessary for the writer to choose which stance he/she takes at the end of a discussion essay.

6、5. The discussion section of research paper is where the author most effectively demonstrates his/her ability to think critically about an issue.

7、The discussion section of a research paper is where the author develops creative solutions to problems based on a logical synthesis of the findings, and formulates a deeper understanding of the research problem under investigation.

8、7. In the discussion section, it is always necessary for the author to explain how the study has furthered the reader’s understanding of the research problem posed at the end of the introduction.

Critical thinking: Discussion: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、Decide whether or not these statements are the reasons for using exemplification in your writing or speech. 1.To create interest and take the reader beyond a telling statement

2、2. To help explain ideas or clarify an abstraction

3、3. To persuade skeptical readers

4、4.To show causal relationship.

5、5.To avoid unintended ambiguity

Reading: Reading for arguments in a discussion随堂测验

1、Read Text 2 and locate the paragraph in which the author expresses his opinion on this topic. Which statement (a-d) best describes the writer’s stance?
    A、a. Paragraphs ❷ and ❸. The technological perspective and the market perspective should be integrated to explain the uneven development of the global wind energy industry.
    B、b. Paragraph ❶. The uneven growth of the wind energy industry in different parts of the world cannot easily be explained.
    C、c. Paragraph ❺. Technological, economic and political factors can all explain the uneven development of the global wind energy industry.
    D、d. Paragraph ❺. The development of the wind energy industry in different countries has been heavily influenced by the efforts of environmental groups.

2、Read Text 2, the discussion section in a book chapter entitled The Puzzling Development of the Wind Energy Industry. Determine the claims, reasons and evidence. The text is printed with bold, normal and italic fonts respectively for different purposes. Fill in colum A with "bold, normal and italic texts". Colum A Colum B 1 _____ texts a give examples and evidence

3、2 ______texts b explain the reasons for arguments

4、3 ______ texts c express the main claims of the paragraph

Listening & Speaking: Discussion in a seminar随堂测验

1、In Video 1, Keith Dancey expressed his favorable opinion on nuclear power, while Tony Juniper expressed his negative opinion on renewable energy. A student who watched the video took rough notes on this part. Watch the video carefully and complete the notes. Pay attention to how Tony Juniper disagreed with his counterpart. 1. ____________

2、2. ______________

3、3.___________

4、4. ________________

5、5._____________

6、6._____________

7、7.___________

8、8.____________

Listening & Speaking: Discussion in a seminar随堂测验

1、A student who watched Video 2 made rough notes while listening. After that, she organized them so that they were easy to understand. With the help of your notes, complete the revised version of her notes of the discussion by putting appropriate words in each gap. 1. __________

2、2._______

3、3.__________

4、4. ____________

5、5.__________

6、6.____________

7、7.__________________

8、8.___________

9、9.____________

10、10.____________

11、11.___________

12、12.__________

13、13.__________

14、14.____________

15、15.______________

16、16.___________

17、17.___________

18、18.__________

19、19.___________

20、20.___________

Vocabulary & Structure: Collocations in discussion随堂测验

1、Match the parts of collocations in Column Awith their endings in Column B by filling the blanks with words or phrases from Column B. Column A Column B 1 gather detail 2 play data 3 challenge/propose evidence 4 go into a study/research 5 provide a conclusion 6 draw a theory 7 carry out argument 8 perfect/clear a central role 9 powerful/mighty the sources 10 acknowledge illustration 1. gather _________

2、2. play ______________

3、3. challenge/propose ______________

4、4. go into______________

5、5. provide______________

6、6. draw ______________

7、7. carry out______________

8、8. perfect/clear_____________

9、9. powerful/mighty ______________

10、10. acknowledge ____________

Vocabulary & Structure: Collocations in discussion随堂测验

1、Judge the list pairs of collocations, choose the more appropriate collocations.
    A、completely sophisticated
    B、highly sophisticated
    C、utterly interesting
    D、utterly fascinating

2、Judge the list pairs of collocations, choose the more appropriate collocations.
    A、powerful computer
    B、strong computer
    C、interested of
    D、interested in

3、Judge the list pairs of collocations, choose the more appropriate collocations.
    A、aware in
    B、aware of
    C、a rush of anger
    D、a surge of anger

4、Judge the list pairs of collocations, choose the more appropriate collocations.
    A、burst into tears
    B、touch on an issue
    C、fall into categories
    D、touch in an issue

Self-assessment

1、Reaching new peaks of popularity in North America is Iceberg Water, which is harvested from icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Arthur Von Wiesenberger, who carries the title Water Master, is one of the few water critics in North America. As a boy, he spent time in the larger cities of Italy, France and Switzerland, where bottled water is consumed daily. Even then, he kept a water journal, noting the brands he liked best. “My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water,” He says. But is plain tap water all that bad? Not at all. In fact, New York’s municipal water for more than a century was called the champagne of tap water and until recently considered among the best in the world in terms of both taste and purity. Similarly, a magazine in England found that tap water from the Thames River tasted better than several leading brands of bottled water that were 400 times more expensive. Nevertheless, soft-drink companies view bottled water as the next battle-ground for market share—despite the fact that over 25 percent of bottled water comes from tap water: PepsiCo’s Aquafina and Coca-Cola’s Dasani are both purified tap water rather than spring water. As diners thirst for leading brands, bottlers and restaurateurs salivate (垂涎) over the profits. A restaurant’s typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent, whereas on bottled water it’s often 300 to 500 percent. But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care. As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sell bottled water. According to an article in The Street Journal, some of the more shameless tactics include placing attractive bottles on the table for a visual sell, listing brands on the menu without prices, and pouring bottled water without even asking the diners if they want it. Regardless of how it’s sold, the popularity of bottled water taps into our desire for better health, our wish to appear cultivated, and even a longing for lost purity. What do we know about Iceberg Water from the passage?
    A、It is a kind of iced water.
    B、It is just plain tap water.
    C、It is a kind of bottled water.
    D、It is a kind of mineral water

2、By saying “My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water” (Line 3 Para. 2), Von Wiesenberger wants to convey the message that ________.
    A、plain tap water is certainly unfit for drinking
    B、bottled water is clearly superior to tap water
    C、bottled water often appeals more to dogs taste
    D、dogs can usually detect a fine difference in taste

3、The “fancier brands” (Line 3 Para. 5) refers to ________.
    A、tap water from the Thames River
    B、famous wines not sold in ordinary stores
    C、PepsiCo’s Aquafina and Coca-Cola’s Dasani
    D、expensive bottled water with impressive names

4、Why are some restaurants turning up the pressure to sell bottled water?
    A、Bottled water brings in huge profits.
    B、Competition from the wine industry is intense.
    C、Most diners find bottled water affordable.
    D、Bottled water satisfied diners’ desire to fashionable.

5、According to passage, why is bottled water so popular?
    A、It is much cheaper than wine.
    B、It is considered healthier.
    C、It appeals to more cultivated people.
    D、It is more widely promoted in the market.

6、Priscilla Ouchida’s “energy-efficient” house turned out to be a horrible dream. When she and her engineer husband married a few years ago, they built a $100,000, three-bedroom home in California. Tightly sealed to prevent air leaks, the house was equipped with small double-paned (双层玻璃的) windows and several other energy-saving features. Problems began as soon as the couple moved in, however. Priscilla’s eyes burned. Her throat was constantly dry. She suffered from headaches and could hardly sleep. It was as though she had suddenly developed a strange illness. Experts finally traced the cause of her illness. The level of formaldehyde (甲醛) gas in her kitchen was twice the maximum allowed by federal standards for chemical workers. The source of the gas? Her new kitchen cabinets and wall-to-wall carpeting. The Ouchidas are victims of indoor air pollution, which is not given sufficient attention partly because of the nation’s drive to save energy. The problem itself isn’t new. “The indoor environment was dirty long before energy conservation came along,” says Moschandreas, a pollution scientist at Geomet Technologies in Maryland. “Energy conservation has tended to accentuate the situation in some cases.” The problem appears to be more troublesome in newly constructed homes rather than old ones. Back in the days when energy was cheap, home builders didn’t worry much about unsealed cracks. Because of such leaks, the air in an average home was replaced by fresh outdoor air about once an hour. As a result, the pollutants generated in most households seldom build up to dangerous levels. It can be learned from the passage that the Ouchidas house ________.
    A、is well worth the money spent on its construction
    B、is almost faultless from the point of energy conservation
    C、failed to meet energy conservation standards
    D、was designed and constructed in a scientific way

7、What made the Ouchidas’ new house a horrible dream?
    A、Lack of fresh air.
    B、Poor quality of building materials.
    C、Gas leakage in the kitchen.
    D、The newly painted walls.

8、The word “accentuate” (Line 4, Para. 3) most probably means “________”.
    A、relieve
    B、accelerate
    C、worsen
    D、improve

9、Why were cracks in old houses not a big concern?
    A、Because indoor cleanliness was not emphasized.
    B、Because energy used to be inexpensive.
    C、Because environmental protection was given top priority.
    D、Because they were technically unavoidable

10、This passage is most probably taken from an article entitled “________”.
    A、Energy Conservation
    B、Houses Building Crisis
    C、Air Pollution Indoors
    D、Traps in Building Construction

11、What are the basic components of an argument?
    A、Reasons
    B、Evidence
    C、Claim
    D、Counterclaim

12、What are the criteria to evaluate evidence?
    A、Sufficiency
    B、Credibility
    C、Accuracy
    D、Relevance

13、Exemplification uses specific and vivid examples to add more information to______________.
    A、explain a general idea
    B、persuade the audience
    C、define a term
    D、illustrate a general idea

14、It is always necessary for the author to decide which stance to take in a discussion essay.

15、In this unit, we have learned two ways of presenting an argument: the balanced way and the_____________.

16、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The _____________ of a country, society, or organization consists of the basic facilities such as transport, communications, power supplies, and buildings, which enable it to function.

17、ill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The police have managed to ____________ some of the stolen money.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The government had been _____________a 5% consumer price increase for the entire year.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The company had a___________ improvement in profits last year.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate Temperatures can _____________ by as much as 10 degrees.

21、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate Millions of years ago, changes in the Earth's climate caused animal and plant life to__________.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The company is reconsidering the way in which it ___________ its resources.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate Many experts________ rewarding your child for good behaviour.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate Local people have mixed feelings about the planned ___________of their town into a regional capital.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. marginal diversify project dispatch transformation infrastructure advocate retrieve deploy fluctuate The Italian government was preparing to ___________ 4,000 soldiers to search the island.

Write a persuasive discussion

1、Develop a persuasive discussion on the topic of “What renewable energy source is more promising” , do research online, choose one renewable energy as the most promising energy source, and support your argument with sufficient, relevant and reliable reasons and evidence/examples), try to use counter argument and refute it. You should write no less than 180 words.

Unit 5 Health

Critical Thinking: Interpretation and Inference: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、Interpretation and inference is an important skill both in daily life and in academic research. Consider the following situations and decide whether interpretation and inference is applied in each situation. 1. Someone asks for a glass of water, so you know he is thirsty.

2、2. A student explains how his research results can benefit life.

3、3. A professor conducts an experiment to see the result.

4、4. A text is attributed to a scholar, so you think it is authoritative.

5、5. Someone cheats on his tax, so you report him to the police.

Critical Thinking: Interpretation and Inference: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、Read the following sentences and decide if they are appropriate descriptions of interpretation and inference. 1. Interpretation and inference are intertwined and overlapping.

2、2. Interpretation and inference can be easily differentiated and separated by looking at their different features.

3、3. Interpretation is to draw inferences from the collected facts after an analytical or experimental study.

4、4. Both interpretation and inference refer to a cognitive process that comes to a conclusion through consideration.

5、5. Inference is a process of deriving logical conclusions from given premises.

6、6. Interpretation and inference can only be conducted through analyzing statistical data.

7、7. Interpretation and inference are often combined and applied in data interpretation of a research paper.

8、8. Interpretation and inference are only used in data interpretation of a research paper.

Critical Thinking: Interpretation and Inference: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、After collecting and analyzing data, a researcher must draw inferences. Only through interpretation can a researcher expose relations and processes underlying his/her findings. In doing so, what questions should the researcher consider? 1. Are the data appropriate, trustworthy and adequate for drawing inferences?

2、2. What features of the data can be highlighted?

3、3. What findings might be inferred from the data?

4、4. What findings are most important?

5、5. How are the findings related to previous similar studies?

6、6. What conclusion can be reached from the study?

Reading: Elements included in data interpretation随堂测验

1、Read the following research methods and decide which are quantitative, which are qualitative and which may be both. Please write "Quantitative", "Qualitative" or "Both" on the blank. 1. field work __________

2、2. case study __________

3、3. lab experiment __________

4、4. interview __________

5、5. questionnaire __________

6、6. audio/video recording __________

7、7. census __________

Reading: Elements included in data interpretation随堂测验

1、Read Text 2 of Unit 5 on Page 128 of the textbook. Place the sentences in the blanks (❶-❹) based on your comprehension of this data interpretation. ❶__________________________________________________________
    A、This could be explained by their 8-month support phase, through group sessions or newsletters.
    B、In contrast, the intervention in the present study comprised thirteen 3-h weekly meetings and a 6-h intensive day.
    C、Two other studies reported increased intuitive eating among college students enrolled in a HAES® general education course [21] or a “Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Weight Management” course [22].
    D、While the quasi-experimental design could be viewed as a limitation, this real-life community context increases the public health relevance of the results.

2、❷____________________________________________________________
    A、This could be explained by their 8-month support phase, through group sessions or newsletters.
    B、In contrast, the intervention in the present study comprised thirteen 3-h weekly meetings and a 6-h intensive day.
    C、Two other studies reported increased intuitive eating among college students enrolled in a HAES® general education course [21] or a “Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Weight Management” course [22].
    D、While the quasi-experimental design could be viewed as a limitation, this real-life community context increases the public health relevance of the results.

3、❸________________________________________________________
    A、This could be explained by their 8-month support phase, through group sessions or newsletters.
    B、In contrast, the intervention in the present study comprised thirteen 3-h weekly meetings and a 6-h intensive day.
    C、Two other studies reported increased intuitive eating among college students enrolled in a HAES® general education course [21] or a “Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Weight Management” course [22].
    D、While the quasi-experimental design could be viewed as a limitation, this real-life community context increases the public health relevance of the results.

4、❹______________________________________________________
    A、This could be explained by their 8-month support phase, through group sessions or newsletters.
    B、In contrast, the intervention in the present study comprised thirteen 3-h weekly meetings and a 6-h intensive day.
    C、Two other studies reported increased intuitive eating among college students enrolled in a HAES® general education course [21] or a “Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Weight Management” course [22].
    D、While the quasi-experimental design could be viewed as a limitation, this real-life community context increases the public health relevance of the results.

Listening and Speaking: Tips for listening to a data presentation随堂测验

1、Watch Video 1 and complete the following mind map. 1. _______________

2、2. _______________

3、3. _______________

4、4. _______________

5、5. _______________

6、6. _______________

7、7. _______________

8、8. _______________

Listening and Speaking: Tips for listening to a data presentation随堂测验

1、Watch Video 2 and complete the following table. Findings from data Interpretation 1 Progress is overall, but inequalities are increasing. Progress has not been 1__________ across the region, and inequalities between men and women, countries and 2__________ are really the mark of European statistics. 2 People in Europe are living longer. In 2010, women in Europe lived on average to the age of 3__________, while men only lived to 4__________ years old. This difference is a result of 5__________ that men make. 3 The population is ageing. 6__________ of European population is over 65 years old, and it is assumed by 2050, this number will reach 7__________. Besides, among the 73 million migrants, the majority are young and poor women, which means they may 8__________. 4 Non-communicable diseases cause 80% of deaths. Non-communicable diseases include heart disease, 9__________, cancers, respiratory diseases. 30% of deaths caused by them are called 10__________. These diseases are closely linked to certain modifiable risk factors including 11__________ such as air pollution. 5 TB and HIV/AIDS are of concern. Europe is the only region where 12__________ are still rising. Over the last twenty years, the mortality from communicable diseases in Europe has actually 13__________. One reason is that certain bacteria, viruses and parasites are 14__________ that we’re using to treat them. 1. _______________

2、2. _______________

3、3. _______________

4、4. _______________

5、5. _______________

6、6. _______________

7、7. _______________

8、8. _______________

9、9. _______________

10、10. _______________

11、11. _______________

12、12. _______________

13、13. _______________

14、14. _______________

Vocabulary & Structure: Signposting language in data interpretation随堂测验

1、When you conduct an interpretation of findings, you should use major signposts to guide the reader carefully through your argument. Work with your partner and classify the major signposts in the box into different categories to show different elements of data interpretation. (答案选项用英文逗号与空格隔开,如A, B) A. This is consistent with research regarding dietary restraint and weight concern.... B. However, our findings suggest that DT was significantly related to higher likelihood.... C. Another possible explanation for this is that …. D. We observed significant differences in drinking behaviors across the ethnic groups.... E. The findings are in line with existing literature based on youth.... F. One possible explanation for prevalence differences between the ethnic groups is.... G. We expected to find that FF would be more strongly associated with cigarette smoking.... H. Iwamoto et al. (2012) similarly found that Japanese and Filipino American young adults... I. However, contrary to hypothesis, the relationship was negative in direction.... J. It may also be that women with higher FF are engaging in.... K. Although, these results differ from some published studies.... L. Therefore, women in this study were significantly more likely to have.... * SOURCE: Kane, J. C., et al. (2017). Differences in alcohol use patterns between adolescent Asian American ethnic groups: Representative estimates from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2002–2013. Addictive Behaviors, 64: 154-158. Copeland, A. L., et al. (2016). Fear of fatness and drive for thinness in predicting smoking status in college women. Addictive Behaviors, 54: 1-6. Categories Major signposts 1 Major findings from the data. 2 Explanations for the findings. 3 Reference to previous research. 4 Alternative explanations for the findings. 1. __________

2、2. __________

3、3. __________

4、4. __________

Vocabulary & Structure: Signposting language in data interpretation随堂测验

1、Choose from the major signposts in the box to complete the sentences below. A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❶ _______________, across all three experiments, exposure to competing frames consistently affected beliefs regarding whether it is unhealthy to be fat.

2、A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❷ _______________ that the participants in the current study were exposed to two — compared to only one — articles presenting a Fat Rights frame or because the real articles we used were especially compelling.

3、A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❸ _______________, exposure to the Fat Rights frame had a stronger and more consistent effect on diminishing the expression of anti-fat prejudice and discrimination.

4、A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❹ _______________ dominant news portrayals of obesity may be undermining the solidarity.

5、A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❺ _______________ the potential difficulty of shifting non-punitive policy attitudes.

6、A) It also suggests that B) This may be due to the fact C) Past research has found D) Consistent with our hypothesis E) These findings point to F) Compared to previous research ❻ _______________, however, that men also face anti-fat stigma in popular media (Fouts and Vaughn, 2002; Greenberg et al., 2003; Himes and Thompson, 2007).

Self-assessment

1、Experimental scientists often gain their findings from ____________.
    A、field observation
    B、statistical calculations
    C、personal interviews
    D、case studies

2、If you want to stay young, sit down and have a good think. This is the research finding of a team of Japanese doctors, who say that most of our brains are not getting enough exercise—and as a result, we are ageing unnecessarily soon. Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of ageing could be slowed down. With a team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, he set about measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain precise measurements of the volume of the front and side sections of the brain, which relate to intellect and emotion, and determine the human character. (The rear section of the brain, which controls functions like eating and breathing, does not contract with age, and one can continue living without intellectual or emotional faculties.) Contraction of front and side parts—as cells die off—was observed in some subjects in their thirties, but it was still not evident in some sixty- and seventy-year-olds. Matsuzawa concluded from his tests that there is a simple remedy to the contraction normally associated with age—using the head. The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the towns. Those least at risk, says Matsuzawa, are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. White collar workers doing routine work in government offices are, however, as likely to have shrinking brains as the farm worker, bus driver and shop assistant. Matsuzawa’s findings show that thinking can prevent the brain from shrinking. Blood must circulate properly in the head to supply the fresh oxygen the brain cells need. “The best way to maintain good blood circulation is through using the brain,” he says, “Think hard and engage in conversation. Don’t rely on pocket calculators.” The team of doctors wanted to find out ________.
    A、why certain people age sooner than others
    B、how to make people live longer
    C、the size of certain people’s brains
    D、which people are most intelligent

3、On what are their research findings based?
    A、A survey of farmers in northern Japan.
    B、Tests performed on a thousand old people.
    C、The study of brain volumes of different people.
    D、The latest development of computer technology.

4、The doctor’s test show that ________.
    A、our brains shrink as we grow older
    B、the front section of the brain does not shrink
    C、sixty-year-olds have the better brains than thirty-year-olds
    D、some people’s brains have contracted more than other people’s

5、The word “subjects” in Paragraph 5means ________.
    A、something to be considered
    B、branches of knowledge studied
    C、persons chosen to be studied in an experiment
    D、any member of a state except the supreme ruler

6、According to the passage, which people seem to age slower than the others?
    A、Lawyers.
    B、Farmers.
    C、Clerks.
    D、Shop assistants.

7、As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease—especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits, smoking, and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight, but does not eat very nutritious (有营养的) foods, who feels OK but exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not an outstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts, but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. He may not even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier. The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely “not ill” and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body’s special needs. Both types have simply been called “well.” In recent years, however, some health specialists have begun to apply the terms “well” and “wellness” only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health. People who are well are concerned with nutrition and exercise, and they make a point of monitoring their body’s condition. Most important, perhaps, people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health. Even people who have a physical disease or handicap (缺陷) may be “well,” in this new sense, if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations. “Wellness” may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people face the challenges of daily life. Today medical care is placing more stress on ________.
    A、keeping people in a healthy physical condition
    B、monitoring patients’ body functions
    C、removing people’s bad living habits
    D、ensuring people’s psychological well-being

8、In the first paragraph, people are reminded that ________.
    A、good health is more than not being ill
    B、drinking, even if not to excess, could be harmful
    C、regular health checks are essential to keeping fit
    D、prevention is more difficult than cure

9、Traditionally, a person is considered “well” if he ________.
    A、does not have any unhealthy living habits
    B、does not have any physical handicaps
    C、is able to handle his daily routines
    D、is free from any kind of disease

10、According to the author, the true meaning of “wellness” is for people ________.
    A、to best satisfy their body’s special needs
    B、to strive to maintain the best possible health
    C、to meet the strictest standards of bodily health
    D、to keep a proper balance between work and leisure

11、According to what the author advocates, which of the following groups of people would be considered healthy?
    A、People who have strong muscles as well as slim figures.
    B、People who are not presently experiencing any symptoms of disease.
    C、People who try to be as healthy as possible, regardless of their limitations.
    D、People who can recover from illness even without seeking medical care.

12、Explanation of the meaning and significance of one’s findings connects the discussion section with the introduction.

13、Both interpretation and inference refer to a cognitive process that comes at a __________ through analysis and reasoning.

14、Data interpretation is usually placed in the ___________ section of a report.

15、Data interpretation of a research paper usually begins with a statement of the major findings from the data in a direct, __________ and concise way.

16、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive There is often no clear _______between an allergy and food intolerance.

17、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive Solar power is the ___________ of the sun's energy into heat and electricity.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive She stood in the wings and waited for her _________ to go on to the stage.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive If you have a(an) _________ idea or feeling about something, you feel that it is true although you have no evidence or proof of it.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive The school was used as a hospital for the ________ of the war.

21、ill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive There is little _________ for people to leave their cars at home when public transport remains so expensive.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive I'm afraid I have no __________but to ask you to leave.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasibe distinction alternative cue eligible incentive A new report suggests that chewing-gum may be a health_______.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive Fifty-one per cent of ___________ voters voted in favour.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. intuitive conversion hazard duration feasible distinction alternative cue eligible incentive It's just not ________ to manage the business on a part-time basis.

Write a paragraph of data interpretation

1、Write a paragraph of data interpretation for the following data report. You are required to write about 100 words. In 2014 the Mental Health Task Force on Graduate Student Mental Health at the University of California Berkley surveyed its graduate students and revealed 45% had experienced an emotional or stress-related problem in the last 12 months that significantly affected their well-being and/or academic performance. A 2013 survey of college students found that 57% of women and 40% of men reported experiencing episodes of “overwhelming anxiety” in the past year, and 33% of women and 27% of men reported a period in the last year of feeling so depressed it was difficult to function.

Unit 6 Safety

Critical Thinking: Evaluation: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、To evaluate is to make judgments about the value of ideas or material for a given purpose in a given context. Decide which of the following statements contain some sort of evaluation. Tick (√) the appropriate column. Many arterial streets are designed to accommodate large volumes of fast moving vehicles, often a risk to pedestrian safety.

2、Some collector and arterial streets are built with inadequate or no sidewalks or walkways, discouraging or limiting safe pedestrian movement along streets.

3、The number of lanes a pedestrian must cross has a direct effect on the complexity of the crossing task and the pedestrian crash risk.

4、Functional classification is the process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are intended to provide.

5、Wide streets encourage and allow higher vehicle speeds, which relate directly to more severe injuries (to motorists and pedestrians) when a crash occurs.

Critical Thinking: Evaluation: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、You should identify evaluative meaning after recognizing the evaluation in a text. Read the following statements and decide whether they are positive, negative. Having children can mean the development of social relationships that can be beneficial to women, and ensure higher standings within a social network (Schoen et al, 1997). This evaluation is ____________.

2、Almost inevitably, shoehorning organizations into technology, and forcing unwelcome change or detrimental practices on an organization for the sake of the technology will lead to failure. This evaluation is ____________.

3、Hitler’s popularity amongst the majority of the German people have been variously analyzed by historians, and though the percentages are debatable, it is generally recognized that his popularity was of fundamental importance to the functioning of the third Reich. This evaluation is ____________.

4、Immigrants were linked with social problems, including shortages of housing and crime, and through this connection racism was reinforced, as people began to see immigrants and people from other races as a problem. This evaluation is ____________.

Critical Thinking: Evaluation: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、When evaluating solutions, you should list supporting information to back up your ideas about the best solution to the problem in an analytical tone. Details, including specific facts, examples, and reasons can indicate why one solution is the best. Read the following sentences and decide whether the details are facts, examples, reasons or all of them. Road safety is a shared responsibility. Reducing risk in the world’s road traffic systems requires commitment and informed decision-making by government, industry, non-governmental organizations and international agencies. It also requires the participation of people from many different disciplines, including road engineers, motor vehicle designers, law enforcement officers, health professionals, educators, and community groups.
    A、Facts
    B、Examples
    C、Reasons
    D、All of them

2、Road traffic crashes are predictable and can be prevented. Many countries have shown sharp reductions in the number of crashes and casualties by taking actions including raising awareness of, legislating and enforcing laws governing speed limits, alcohol impairment, seat-belt use, child restraints and safety helmets.
    A、Facts
    B、Examples
    C、Reasons
    D、All of them

3、An important precondition to program evaluation is that goals are formulated early-on in the process. If assessment results can be matched to explicitly stated goals, the success in achieving those objectives can be demonstrated and decisions can be made on how to improve or modify the program if necessary.
    A、Facts
    B、Examples
    C、Reasons
    D、All of them

4、Automated photo speed enforcement (photo radar) and red light enforcement take a real-time photo of traffic to record vehicle speeds and behaviors. It can be used to document speeders and those who drive dangerously through crosswalks. In several evaluations, the presence of photo enforcement at intersections has resulted in fewer drivers running red lights and a decline in speeds and collisions. The mere presence or threat of photo speed enforcement may result in better driver compliance and behavior.
    A、Facts
    B、Examples
    C、Reasons
    D、All of them

5、The main goal for enforcement strategies is to deter unsafe driver and pedestrian behavior and to encourage all road users to obey traffic laws and share the road safely. Enforcement is one strategy to improve pedestrian safety, but enforcement alone will not likely have a long-term effect. Communities must combine enforcement, engineering and education strategies to address specific needs and achieve long-term results.
    A、Facts
    B、Examples
    C、Reasons
    D、All of them

Reading: Evaluation for information随堂测验

1、Read Text 1 and find the numbers 26000, 34.5 and 2%. Decide the corresponding interpretation for these numbers. Road accidents and collision costs calculated by this method for Poland for year 2012. This is the interpretation for the number _________.

2、The percentage of GDP for the year 2012. This is the interpretation for the number _________.

3、The approximate number of people who die on the roads of the European Union every year. This is the interpretation for the number _________.

Reading: Evaluation for information随堂测验

1、Read Text 2 and choose the materials with the corresponding opinons. Young male drivers appear to take more risk on the road in the presence of passengers
    A、Arnett (2002)
    B、Howard et al. (2014)
    C、Tränkle et al., 1990
    D、Preusser et al., 1998

2、Young drivers overestimate their driving skills and hence take more risk than do other age groups
    A、Simons-Morton et al., 2005
    B、Arnett (2002)
    C、Tränkle et al., 1990
    D、Begg et al. (2007)

3、There are nearly 336 fatalities among young Australians each year, 31% of which are alcohol-related.
    A、Begg et al. (2007)
    B、Homel (1994)
    C、Simons-Morton et al., 2005
    D、Voas et al., 2003

4、Alcohol consumption (along with air temperature and precipitation) was one of the strongest determinants of traffic fatalities in the US from 1982–2006, in the 48 contiguous states.
    A、Chang et al., 2012
    B、Howard et al. (2014)
    C、Preusser et al., 1998
    D、Yakovlev and Inden (2010)

Listening & Speaking: Evaluation in lectures随堂测验

1、Watch the video 1 and complete the following table by identifying the problem, the evaluation, and the possible solutions to the problem. Problem 1 _______________, but 2 ______________ Evaluation Many drivers feel less safe than they did five years ago because they are worried about 3 _____________ and 4 _____________. Ø More than 80% feel that 5 ____________________ is a bigger problem now than it was 5 years ago. Ø 85% say 6 _____________ is worse now. Ø 52 percent of drivers nationwide 7 _____________than they did five years ago, while 34 percent of the Texas drivers feel less safe. Possible solutions Ø Supporters of 8 _____________ outnumber opponents. Ø More people support 9 _____________ and 10 _____________. Ø More than a half support 11) _________________________________. Ø Almost 70% favor 12) ________________ for motorcyclists. 1. __________

2、2. __________

3、3. __________

4、4. __________

5、5. __________

6、6. __________

7、7. __________

8、8. __________

9、9. __________

10、10. __________

11、11. __________

12、12. __________

Listening & Speaking: Evaluation in lectures随堂测验

1、Watch the Video 2 and find out the problem and its solutions mentioned in the video. The problem is __________.

2、The first solution mentioned is __________.

3、The second solution mentioned is __________.

4、The third solution mentioned is __________.

Writing: SPSE pattern to an effective evaluation essay随堂测验

1、Read and analyze the following short text and identify the four stages of the SPSE approach. (a) Since its inception, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has been an advocate for the American public – working to keep people, vehicles and roads safe. (b) Culture, technology and innovations both steer and detour us on our Road to Zero fatalities. (c) In 2015 alone, 35,092 lives were lost in motor vehicle crashes. (d) Crashes are no accident and each tragedy is preventable. (e) Americans deserve safer roads, and that starts with culture. (f) NHTSA is taking the initiative to create the future as opposed to just letting it happen. (g) In our view, the only acceptable goal for roadway fatalities is zero. (h) Our strategic plan, “The Road Ahead”, highlights three lanes that can deliver a future free from motor vehicle fatalities. SOURCE: Traveling the three lanes on the Road to Zero. Available at: https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/traveling-three-lanes-road-zero. (Accessed: 26 December 2016). Stages Sentences Situation 1. _____________ Problem 2._____________ Solutions 3._____________ Evaluation 4. _____________ 注意:请把句子的代码填入,代码间空一格 1. __________

2、2. __________

3、3. __________

4、4. __________

Vocabulary & Structure: Hedging随堂测验

1、Being able to identify which sentences are using hedging expressions is the first step in learning how to use hedging expressions yourself. Identify the hedging expressions in the following sentences. This is a considerable amount (10% of operating profit), and any adjustments made to this figure could have a significant effect on profit levels.
    A、considerable
    B、adjustments
    C、could
    D、a significant effect

2、This version of the V-model recognizes that the development process is not linear and that several iterations of design and implementation may be necessary while end users and developers refine the requirements.
    A、version
    B、may be
    C、necessary
    D、requirements

3、Research in this area is particularly important as it appears that more and more people are developing the disorders and concealing them.
    A、particularly important
    B、appears
    C、developing the disorders
    D、concealing them

4、It would certainly have gained them the sympathy and attention from those around them, if not the change in their lifestyles that they truly desired.
    A、would
    B、certainly
    C、gained
    D、desired

Vocabulary & Structure: Hedging随堂测验

1、Use hedging to make the following statements less categorical. Choose hedging terms from the list below. Some may be used more than once. Change the form if necessary. seem may tend to assumption suggests Attitudes towards attractiveness and the benefits attractiveness can bring are established from an early age. This 1 _________ be well known and 2 _________ to have internalized as a concept in young girls (Markham, Thompson and Bowling, 2005). This was also supported by Leiberman et al (2001) who found that more popular girls are more likely to have eating disorders. This 3 _________ that girls who want to be popular, or want to maintain popularity 4 _________ resort to severe eating behaviour and are under the 5 _________ that slimness and attractiveness equals popularity. If this is the case, then integrating a new peer group 6 _________ be a significant factor on eating behaviour in first year students. This study investigated the effect new peer group had over eating by measuring insecurity felt amongst new friends. It 7 _________ not be that individuals feel insecure with their friends, but that they feel competitive amongst their new friends and engage in dieting tactics in order to establish themselves as the most attractive, thereby increasing their chances of being popular. *The sentences are retrieved from British Academic Written English Corpus. (Accessed: 26 December 2016). 1. __________

2、2. __________

3、3. __________

4、4. __________

5、5. __________

6、6. __________

7、7. __________

Self-assessment

1、Choose the evaluative word which conveys the positive meaning.
    A、disaster
    B、trend
    C、opportunity
    D、impact

2、Believe it or not, optical illusion (错觉) can cut highway crashes. Japan is a case in point. It has reduced automobile crashes on some roads by nearly 75 percent using a simple optical illusion. Bent stripes, called chevrons (人字形), painted on the roads make drivers think that they are driving faster than they really are, and thus drivers slow down. Now the American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety in Washington D.C. is planning to repeat Japan’s success. Starting next year, the foundation will paint chevrons and other patterns of stripes on selected roads around the country to test how well the patterns reduce highway crashes. Excessive speed plays a major role in as much as one fifth of all fatal traffic accidents, according to the foundation. To help reduce those accidents, the foundation will conduct its tests in areas where speed-related hazards are the greatest—curves, exit slopes, traffic circles, and bridges. Some studies suggest that straight, horizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half. However, traffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bars. Chevrons, scientists say, not only give drivers the impression that they are driving faster than they really are but also make a lane appear to be narrower. The result is a longer lasting reduction in highway speed and the number of traffic accidents. On roads painted with chevrons, drivers tend to feel that ________.
    A、they should avoid speed-related hazards
    B、they are driving in the wrong lane
    C、they should slow down their speed
    D、they are approaching the speed limit

3、The American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety plans to ________.
    A、try out the Japanese method in certain areas
    B、change the road signs across the country
    C、replace straight, horizontal bars with chevrons
    D、repeat the Japanese road patterns

4、What does the author say about straight, horizontal bars painted across roads?
    A、They are falling out of use in the United States.
    B、They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time.
    C、They are applicable only on broad roads.
    D、They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles.

5、The advantage of chevrons over straight, horizontal bars is that the former ________.
    A、can keep drivers awake
    B、can cut road accidents in half
    C、will have a longer effect on drivers
    D、will look more attractive

6、The passage mainly discusses ________.
    A、a new way of highway speed control
    B、a new pattern for painting highways
    C、a new approach to training drivers
    D、a new type of optical illusion

7、A recent study, published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver, Indeed, a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone, By contrast, the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases with each additional passenger. The authors also found that the death rates for teenage drivers increased dramatically after 10 p.m., and especially after midnight, with passengers in the car, the driver was even more likely to die in a late-night accident. Robert Foss, a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience. “The basic issue.” he says, “is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is.” Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate (使…缓解) the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems, in which getting a license is a multistage process. A graduated license requires that a teenager first prove himself capable of driving in the presence of an adult, followed by a period of driving with night of passenger restrictions, before graduating to full driving privileges. Graduated licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes, according to recent studies. About half of the states now have some sort of graduated licensing system in place, but only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers, California is the strictest, with a novice (新手) driver prohibited from carrying any passenger under 20 (without the presence of an adult over 25) for the first six months. Which of the following situations is most dangerous according to the passage?
    A、Adults giving a lift to teenagers on the highway after 10 p.m.
    B、A teenager driving after midnight with passengers in the car.
    C、Adults driving with three or more teenage passengers late at night.
    D、A teenager getting a lift from a stranger on the highway at midnight.

8、According to Robert Foss, the high death rate of teenage drivers is mainly due to ________.
    A、their frequent driving at night
    B、their improper way of driving
    C、their lack of driving experience
    D、their driving with passengers

9、According to Paragraph 3, which of the following statements is TRUE?
    A、Teenagers should spend more time learning to drive.
    B、Driving is a skill too complicated for teenagers to learn.
    C、Restrictions should be imposed on teenagers applying to take driving lessons.
    D、The licensing authorities are partly responsible for teenagers’ driving accidents.

10、A suggested measure to be taken to reduce teenagers’ driving accidents is that ________.
    A、driving in the presence of an adult should be made a rule
    B、they should be prohibited from taking on passengers
    C、they should not be allowed to drive after 10 p.m.
    D、the licensing system should be improved

11、The present situation in about half of the states is that the graduated licensing system ________.
    A、is under discussion
    B、is about to be set up
    C、has been put into effect
    D、has been perfected

12、What are the right kinds of effective evidence to support evaluation?
    A、Field observations
    B、Statistical calculations
    C、Personal interviews
    D、Case studies

13、Hedging is the expression of tentativeness and possibility in language use.

14、To evaluate is to arrive at a conclusion about the value of something by considering its strengths and ___________.

15、The SPSE essay discusses a situation and a problem and then proposes a solution and a(an) ___________ of the solution.

16、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional People with fair skin who sunburn easily are very ______ to develop skin cancer.

17、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional If people in authority _______ a law or a rule, they make sure that it is obeyed, usually by punishing people who do not obey it.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional The changes to the national health system will be_______ next year.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional A hospital spokesman said she had suffered a _______ heart attack.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional It's not a hotel, in the _________ sense, but rather a whole village turned into a hotel.

21、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional I ran around the corner, and almost ________ with Mrs Laurence.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional You risk _________ bank charges if you exceed your overdraft limit.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional He’s quite high up in the management ________.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional The government is doing nothing to __________ in the crisis.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. fatal implement collide prone intervene enforce incur hierarchy perceive conventional Children who do badly in school tests often _______ themselves to be failures.

Problem-solution essay

1、Distracted driving is driving while doing another activity that takes your attention away from driving. It endangers the driver, passengers, and any bystanders. Write an essay on distracted driving in China by employing the SPSE pattern.

Unit 7 Research

Critical Thinking: Arguments in academic texts: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、The first mini-lecture introduces three argument models, namely the Classical Model (or Aristotelian Model), the Toulmin Model and the Rogerian Model. Read the following writing scenarios and choose the most suitable type of model for each scenario. A The Classical Model B The Toulmin Model C The Rogerian Model 1. A student writer is being asked to write an argumentative piece taking a clear, strong position on an issue related to her field, engineering. She needs to devote some attention to the opposing views.

2、2. A student writer is being asked to develop an argument that will appeal to both sides of a very controversial issue related to his field, which is political science.

3、3. A student writer is being asked to make an argumentative claim on a solution to a problem to which there are no easy answers. At least, the student should be able to offer a solution that will help the most people, though there will be exception.

Critical Thinking: Arguments in academic texts: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、1. ______
    A、Data
    B、Qulifier
    C、Claim
    D、Rebuttal

2、2. ________
    A、Data
    B、Qualifier
    C、Claim
    D、Warrant

3、3._____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Backing
    D、Rebuttal

4、4. _____
    A、Data
    B、Claim
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

5、5. ____
    A、Data
    B、Claim
    C、Backing
    D、Rebuttal

6、6. ____
    A、Backing
    B、Claim
    C、Data
    D、Qualifier

Critical Thinking: Arguments in academic texts: A brief introduction随堂测验

1、1. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

2、2. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

3、3. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

4、5. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Backing

5、4. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

6、6. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Rebuttal
    C、Qualifier
    D、Data

7、7. ____
    A、Claim
    B、Data
    C、Warrant
    D、Rebuttal

Reading: Types of arguments随堂测验

1、3. All the dogs that have been observed, can bark, therefore all the dogs can bark.

2、2. All cats have a keen sense of smell. Fluffy is a cat, so Fluffy has a keen sense of smell.

3、Deductive reasoning is a type of reasoning which goes from general to specific. Deductive reasoning is based on premises and if the premises are true, then the reasoning will be valid. It is mostly used in maths and sciences. Here is an everyday example. The term "inductive reasoning" refers to reasoning that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that is considered probable, allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate. Read the following examples, and decide whether it demonstrates deductive or inductive reasoning. If it is deductive reasoning, type d in the blank. If it is inductive reasoning, type i in the blank. 1.In mathematics, If A = B and B = C, then A = C.

Reading: Types of arguments随堂测验

1、Mini-lecture 2 explained indicative and deductive reasoning. Which type of reasoning is behind the author’s generalization in Text 1? A Inductive B Deductive

Listening & Speaking: Types of evidence随堂测验

1、1. _____

2、2. ____

3、3. ____

4、4. ____

5、5. ____

Listening & Speaking: Types of evidence随堂测验

1、2. ____

2、3. ____

3、4. ____

4、5. ____

5、6. ____

6、1. ____

7、7. ____

8、8. ____

Vocabulary & Structure: Formality of language随堂测验

1、Decide whether the sentences are formal or informal. If the sentence is formal, write down F. If the sentence is informal, write down I. Sentences 1 The project will be completed next year. 2 I showed that his arguments didn’t hold water. 3 I wonder why he put up with those terrible conditions for so long. 4 Five more tests will be necessary before the experiment can be concluded. 5 It is possible to consider the results from a different viewpoint. 6 It has been proved that the arguments so far are without foundation. 7 He’ll have to do another five tests before he can stop the experiment. 8 It is not clear why such terrible conditions were tolerated for so long. 9 There are a number of reasons why the questionnaire should be revised. 10 We’ll finish the job next year.

2、

3、

4、

5、

6、

7、

8、

9、

10、

Vocabulary & Structure: Formality of language随堂测验

1、Revise the following paragraph. Change the informal language to formal language. Informal: We see a rise in the expectations to do research for university faculty in the past 50 years or so. Many universities assess their faculty’s performance based on their productivity in research. They also use this as perhaps the only criterion for hiring, tenure, and promotion. A few factors cause this, such as the universities’ stronger dependence on research funding to support the basic running of universities, the strong desire of their administrators and faculty members for wanting to rank highly internationally.

Self-assessment

1、The Toulmin model of arguments consists of six components: claim, ground, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal. Which three components are primary?
    A、claim, warrant, rebuttal
    B、claim, ground, warrant
    C、ground, warrant, backing
    D、ground, warrant, rebuttal

2、The structure of the Rogerian model of arguments includes: introduction, summary of opposing views, statement of understanding, statement of your position, statement of contexts, statement of _______.
    A、benefits
    B、rebuttal
    C、excuses
    D、possibilities

3、In only two decades Asian Americans have become the fastest-growing U.S. minority. As their children began moving up through the nation's schools, it became clear that a new class of academic achievers was emerging. Their achievements are reflected in the nation's best universities, where mathematics, science and engineering departments have taken on a decidedly Asian character. This special liking for mathematics and science is partly explained by the fact that Asian-American students who began their educations abroad arrived in the U.S. with a solid grounding in mathematics but little or no knowledge of English. They are also influenced by the promise of a good job after college. Asians feel there will be less unfair treatment in areas like mathematics and science because they will be judged more objectively. And the return on the investment in education is more immediate in something like engineering than with an arts degree. Most Asian-American students owe their success to the influence of parents who are determined that their children take full advantage of what the American educational system has to offer. An effective measure of parental attention is homework. Asian parents spend more time with their children than American parents do, and it helps. Many researchers also believe there is something in Asian Culture that breeds success, such ideals that stress family values and emphasize education. Both explanations for academic success worry Asian Americans because of fears that they feed a typical racial image. Many can remember when Chinese, Japanese and Filipino immigrants were the victims of social isolation. Indeed, it was not until 1952 that laws were laid down giving all Asian immigrants the right to citizenship. While making tremendous achievements at college, Asian-American students ________.
    A、feel they are mistreated because of limited knowledge of English
    B、are afraid that their academic successes bear a strong Asian character
    C、still worry about unfair treatment in society
    D、generally feel it a shame to have to depend on their parents

4、What are the major factors that determine the success of Asian Americans?
    A、A solid foundation in basic mathematics and Asian Americans?
    B、Hard work and intelligence.
    C、Parental help and a limited knowledge of English.
    D、Asian culture and the American educational system.

5、Few Asian-American students major in human sciences mainly because ________.
    A、their English is not good enough
    B、they are afraid they might meet with unfair judgement in these areas
    C、there is a wide difference between Asian and Western cultures
    D、they know little about American cultures and Western cultures

6、Why do the two "explanations" (Para. 3, Line 1) worry Asian Americans?
    A、They are afraid that they would again be isolated from American society in general.
    B、People would think that Asian students rely on their parents for success.
    C、Asian American would be a threat to other minorities.
    D、American academic achievements have taken on too strong an Asian character.

7、The author's tone in this passage is ________.
    A、sympathetic
    B、doubtful
    C、critical
    D、objective

8、For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies-and other creatures-learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards”; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective reward, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological (生理的) “drives” as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink of some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise. It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome. Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to “reward” the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children’s responses in situations where on milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement “switched on” a display of lights and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as many three turns to one side. Papousek’s light display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would “smile and bubble” when the display came on. Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control. According to the author, babies learn to do things which ________.
    A、are directly related to pleasure
    B、will meet their physical needs
    C、will bring them a feeling of success
    D、will satisfy their curiosity

9、Papousek noticed in his studies that a baby ________.
    A、would make learned responses when it saw the milk
    B、would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink
    C、would continue the simple movements without being given milk
    D、would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink

10、In Papousek’s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to ________.
    A、have the lights turned on
    B、be rewarded with milk
    C、please their parents
    D、be praised

11、The babies would “smile and bubble” at the lights because ________.
    A、the lights were directly related to some basic “drives”
    B、the sight of the lights was interesting
    C、they need not turn back to watch the lights
    D、they succeeded in "switching on" the lights

12、According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of ________.
    A、a basic human desire to understand and control the world
    B、the satisfaction of certain physiological needs
    C、their strong desire to solve complex
    D、a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills

13、The classical model of argument consists of six elements, including introduction, background, proposition, proof, __________, conclusion.

14、When reasoning _______, a person starts with a specific statement in order to make a projection to a general conclusion.

15、In a/an ___________ argument the truth of the conclusion necessarily follows from the truth of the claim.

16、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate He tends to _________ the difficulties.

17、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate The smell of cooking ___________the flat.

18、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate New copies of the form can be ____________ from a master copy.

19、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate Vegetables are an __________ part of our diet.

20、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate Britain has ________ itself with other western powers for trade and defence.

21、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate I didn't know whether to __________ her silence as acceptance or refusal.

22、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate What he felt was more _______ to pity than love.

23、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate The coastal areas were occupied by the _____________ of Greek colonists.

24、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate The hotel has been _________ and redecorated.

25、Fill in the blank with one of the words given below. Change the form where necessary. exaggerate interpret integral akin probe ally duplicate renovate descendant permeate I don't want to ____________ too deeply into your personal affairs.

Write an argumentative essay

1、It is sometimes argued that too many students go to university, while others claim that a university education should be a universal right. Discuss both sides of the argument and give your own opinion.